ENR 5.6  Kretanje ptica i oblasti sa osetljivom faunom
Bird migration and areas with sensitive fauna

a) SRBIJA

a) SERBIA

1. KRETANJE PTICA

1. BIRD MIGRATION

1.1 Kretanje ptica je prisutno tokom cele godine, a najizraženije je tokom prolećne i jesenje seobe, kao i tokom zimskog perioda u blizini vodenih površina.

1.1 Bird migration occurs during the whole year, but culminates in the periods of spring and autumn migrations, as well as during winter periods in the vicinity of water resorts.

Seobe su uglavnom frontalnog karaktera i, osim nekoliko vodenih staništa na kojima se javljaju veće koncentracije, nema uskih grla/koridora.

Migrations are mainly of frontal nature and, except several water habitats where large concentrations of birds are present, there are no bottlenecks/corridors.

Područja izraženijeg kretanja ptica tokom prolećne i jesenje seobe prikazana su na karti ENR 6.6–3.

Areas of significant movement of birds during spring and autumn migrations are shown on the chart ENR 6.6–3.

Takođe, postoje i dnevno-noćne migracije ptica između gnezdilišta ili noćilišta i mesta na kojima se preko dana ptice hrane. Ova kretanja su na manjim visinama (uglavnom do 200 M iznad tla), a brojnost ptica (najčešće vrana i galebova) se kreće od nekoliko stotina do nekoliko desetina hiljada jedinki.

In addition, there are bird migrations on a daily basis from nesting or roosting areas to foraging areas. Those migrations occur on lower heights (usually up to 200 M), and number of birds (most often crows and gulls) varies from several hundreds to several tens of thousands of birds.

1.2 Prolećna seoba

1.2 Spring migration

Prolećna seoba je najizraženija u periodu od marta do maja. Tokom ovog perioda najveće koncentracije ptica se javljaju uz vodene površine (reke, jezera, ribnjaci) i to pre svega uz veće reke – Dunav, Savu, Tamiš, Tisu, Veliku i Južnu Moravu.

Spring migration culminates in the period from March to May. During this period there are largest concentrations of birds in the vicinity of water resorts (rivers, lakes, fishponds), but mainly near larger rivers – Danube, Sava, Tamiš, Tisa, Velika Morava and Južna Morava.

Putanje i visine kretanja ptica u toku prolećne seobe

Migration patterns and altitudes during spring migration

Na osnovu iskustvenih podataka, pretpostavlja se da je kretanje izraženije tokom noći, odnosno da tada ptice prelaze veće distance i kreću se na većim visinama. Tokom dana ptice se kreću uglavnom u okolini odmorišta i prelaze manje udaljenosti na manjim visinama. Ne postoje precizni podaci o visini leta ptica tokom seobe, mada se može reći da su u okolini područja gde se ptice zadržavaju veoma česta kretanja na manjim visinama (do nekoliko stotina metara iznad tla).

According to the data based on experience, it is supposed that migration occurs mainly during night, that is: birds then fly larger distances and on higher altitudes. During the day birds migrate mainly in the vicinity of resting areas and fly smaller distances on lower altitudes. There are no precise data on migration altitudes, though it can be said that there are very frequent movements on lower altitudes (up to several hundreds of meters above ground) in the vicinity of resting areas.

1.3 Jesenja seoba

1.3 Autumn migration

Jesenja seoba je najizraženija u periodu od avgusta do oktobra. U toku ovog perioda ptice se javljaju u sličnim brojnostima i na istim lokalitetima kao i u toku prolećne seobe. Takođe, podaci o putanjama i visinama kretanja ptica u toku jesenje seobe se podudaraju sa podacima navedenim za prolećnu seobu.

Autumn migration culminates in the period from August to October. Number and locations of birds during this period are similar to those for spring migration. In addition, data on migration patterns and altitudes are similar to those for spring migration.

1.4 Broj i koncentracija ptica

1.4 Number and concentration of birds

Brojnost ptica koje se zadržavaju na značajnim lokacijama u toku prolećne i jesenje seobe se kreće od nekoliko hiljada do nekoliko desetina hiljada jedinki.

Number of birds that stay at significant locations during spring and autumn migrations varies from several thousands to several tens of thousands of birds.

Sa aspekta bezbednosti vazdušnog saobraćaja najznačajnije su ptice močvarice (patke, guske, čaplje, ždralovi) i pojedine vrste grabljivica, kako zbog svoje veličine tako i zbog brojnosti u kojoj se javljaju.

From the aspect of safety of air transport the most important bird species are the waterfowl (ducks, geese, herons, cranes) and some birds of pray, because of their size and number.

Područja okupljanja velikog broja ptica su prikazana na karti ENR 6.6–3. Najveće koncentracije ptica javljaju se u zimskom periodu oko vodenih staništa. Tako se u srednjem toku Dunava u ovom periodu redovno okuplja oko 100 hiljada močvarica. Tokom reproduktivnog perioda (mart – jul) koncentracije ptica su manje izražene. Nešto veći broj ptica se javlja oko mesta na kojima se gnezde kolonijalne vrste (čaplje, kormorani, lešinari). Ptice se u periodu gneždenja uglavnom kreću tokom dana i na manjim visinama (do nekoliko stotina metara od tla). Lešinari mogu leteti i na nešto većim visinama (do nekoliko hiljada metara od tla) mada je većina kretanja na manjim visinama.

Resting areas of large number of birds are shown on chart ENR 6.6–3. Largest concentrations of birds are during winter period near water habitats. During this period approximately 100 thousands of the Charadriiformes are regularly concentrated in the middle course of the Danube. Concentrations of birds are less present during breeding period (March – July). Larger numbers of birds are present in the vicinity of nesting areas of colonial species (herons, cormorans, vultures). During nesting periods birds usually fly during the day and on lower altitudes (up to several hundreds of meters above ground). Vultures can fly on higher altitudes (up to several thousands of meters above ground), though majority of flying occurs on lower altitudes.

Najveća koncentracija galebova (do 100 hiljada jedinki) se javlja na Dunavu kod Vinče (istočno od Beograda).The largest concentration of gulls (up to 100 thousands of birds) is present on the Danube river, near Vinča (east from Beograd).

1.5 Izveštavanje o udarima ptica

1.5 Reporting of bird strike

Izveštavanje o udaru ptica se sprovodi popunjavanjem obrasca Prijava događaja u vazdušnom saobraćaju, na način opisan u podsekciji ENR 1.14.

Bird strikes shall be reported by using the Air Traffic Occurrence Report Form, in the manner described in subsection ENR 1.14.

2. OBLASTI SA OSETLJIVOM FAUNOM

2. AREAS WITH SENSITIVE FAUNA

Na teritoriji Republike Srbije ne postoje zabrane i ograničenja letenja vazduhoplova iznad stalnih ili privremenih boravišta ugroženih ptičijih vrsta.

There are no restrictions or limitations of aircraft operations above permanent or temporary habitats of the sensitive bird species on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

b) CRNA GORA

b) MONTENEGRO

1. KRETANJE PTICA

1. BIRD MIGRATION

1.1 Kretanje ptica prisutno je tokom cele godine, a najizraženije je tokom prolećne i jesenje seobe, kao i tokom zimskog perioda u blizini vodenih površina.

1.1 Bird migration occurs during the whole year, but culminates in the periods of spring and autumn migrations, as well as during winter periods in the vicinity of water resorts.

S obzirom da Jadranski seobeni koridor prolazi kroz Crnu Goru, seobe su uglavnom frontalnog karaktera i nema uskih grla.

Considering that Adriatic migration corridor passes through Montenegro, migrations are mainly of frontal nature and there are no bottlenecks.

Takođe, postoje i dnevno-noćne migracije ptica između gnezdilišta ili noćilišta i mesta na kojima se preko dana ptice hrane.

In addition, there are bird migrations on a daily basis from nesting or roosting areas to foraging areas.

1.2 Prolećna seoba

1.2 Spring migration

Prolećna seoba je najizraženija u periodu od februara do aprila. Tokom ovog perioda najveće koncentracije ptica se javljaju uz vodene površine (reke, jezera, morska obala) i to pre svega uz: deltu reke Bojane, reku Zetu, kanjon reke Cijevne, Skadarsko jezero, Plavsko jezero, Nikšićke akumulacije, plažu Buljarica i Tivatska solila.

Spring migration culminates in the period from February to April. During this period there are largest concentrations of birds in the vicinity of water resorts (rivers, lakes, sea coast), but mainly near: the Bojana river delta, Zeta river, the canyon of Cijevna river, Lake Skadar, Lake Plav, artificial lakes near Nikšić, Buljarice beach and Tivatska solila.

1.3 Jesenja seoba

1.3 Autumn migration

Jesenja seoba je najizraženija u periodu od avgusta do novembra. U toku ovog perioda ptice se javljaju u sličnim brojnostima i na istim lokalitetima kao i u toku prolećne seobe.

Autumn migration culminates in the period from August to November. Number and locations of birds during this period are similar to those for spring migration.

1.4 Visine kretanja ptica u toku seoba

1.4 Altitudes of bird migration

Ne postoje precizni i kompletni podaci o visini leta ptica tokom seobe. U okolini područja gde se ptice zadržavaju česta su kretanja na manjim visinama (do nekoliko stotina metara iznad tla).

There are no precise and complete data about bird migration altitudes. In the vicinity of resting areas, birds usually fly on lower heights (up to several hundreds of meters above ground).

2. OBLASTI SA OSETLJIVOM FAUNOM

2. AREAS WITH SENSITIVE FAUNA

Na teritoriji Crne Gore ne postoje zabrane i ograničenja letenja vazduhoplova iznad stalnih ili privremenih boravišta ugroženih ptičijih vrsta.

There are no restrictions or limitations of aircraft operations above permanent or temporary habitats of the sensitive bird species on the territory of Montenegro.